Some of the research focuses that were explored in 2018 were: comparison of various agronomic factors on industrial hemp (planting dates, tillage regimens, range of soil fertility, etc.); hemp variety comparison for suitability to PA growing conditions; study of the effectiveness of potential herbicide products; comparison of hemp’s capability for weed suppression to other crops; surveying hemp crops for presence of arthropod and disease pests; evaluation of hemp’s performance for phytoremediation and land reclamation; study of hemp seed oil processing and marketability; development of industrial hemp products (using grain, stalks and flowers); genetic selection for desired hemp variety characteristics; and evaluations of hemp as an animal feed ingredient (cattle).  

Over the ages, countless innovations have attempted to improve on the basic experience of inhaling the smoke of combusted cannabis. As a result, there are numerous ways to smoke marijuana. The rolling technique is at the root of joints, blunts, and spliffs. On the other hand, glassware and other devices are essential for smoking weed out of a pipe, bong, or bubbler.
To make matters more confusing, nine states (including California, Washington, and Colorado) let residents buy cannabis-based products with or without THC. Nearly two dozen other “medical marijuana states” allow the sale of cannabis, including capsules, tinctures, and other items containing CBD or THC, at licensed dispensaries to people whose doctors have certified that they have an approved condition (the list varies by state but includes chronic pain, PTSD, cancer, autism, Crohn’s disease, and multiple sclerosis). Sixteen more states legalized CBD for certain diseases. But because all these products are illegal according to the federal government, cannabis advocates are cautious. “By and large, the federal government is looking the other way,” says Paul Armentano, deputy director of the Washington, DC–based National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), but until federal laws are changed, “this administration or a future one could crack down on people who produce, manufacture, or use CBD, and the law would be on its side.”

Cannabidiol can be taken into the body in multiple different ways, including by inhalation of cannabis smoke or vapor, as an aerosol spray into the cheek, and by mouth. It may be supplied as an oil containing only CBD as the active ingredient (no added THC or terpenes), a full-plant CBD-dominant hemp extract oil, capsules, dried cannabis, or as a prescription liquid solution.[1][3]
In Japan, hemp was historically used as paper and a fiber crop. There is archaeological evidence cannabis was used for clothing and the seeds were eaten in Japan back to the Jōmon period (10,000 to 300 BC). Many Kimono designs portray hemp, or asa (Japanese: 麻), as a beautiful plant. In 1948, marijuana was restricted as a narcotic drug. The ban on marijuana imposed by the United States authorities was alien to Japanese culture, as the drug had never been widely used in Japan before. Though these laws against marijuana are some of the world's strictest, allowing five years imprisonment for possession of the drug, they exempt hemp growers, whose crop is used to make robes for Buddhist monks and loincloths for Sumo wrestlers. Because marijuana use in Japan has doubled in the past decade, these exemptions have recently been called into question.[143]
This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
On Oct. 22 and 23, KDA participated in four informational meetings about Industrial Hemp in Manhattan, Salina, Colby and Garden City hosted by Kansas Farmers Union. The presentation shared by KDA at those meetings can be seen here: KDA Industrial Hemp Presentation. Information on the event, including the video of the guest presenter, can be found on the Kansas Farmers Union website. 
There is a general inverse relationship in the resin of Cannabis between the amounts of THC present and the amount of the other principal cannabinoid, CBD. Whereas most drug strains contain primarily THC and little or no CBD, fiber and oilseed strains primarily contain CBD and very little THC. CBD can be converted to THC by acid catalyzed cyclization, and so could serve as a starting material for manufacturing THC. In theory, therefore, low-THC cultivars do not completely solve the problem of drug abuse potential. In practice, however, the illicit drug trade has access to easier methods of synthesizing THC or its analogues than by first extracting CBD from non-drug hemp strains.
A combination of global overproduction of milk and increasing demand for non-dairy alternatives have crippled farmers whose livelihoods are often built on familial farms, passed down between generations. For many red-blooded farmers living in America's heartlands, agribusinesses are not just a means of putting food on the table. The legacy of farming runs through their veins, and the devastation happening within the industry is just as much a personal blow as it is a financial one.
Cannabis use for medicinal purposes dates back at least 3,000 years.[1-5] It was introduced into Western medicine in 1839 by W.B. O’Shaughnessy, a surgeon who learned of its medicinal properties while working in India for the British East India Company. Its use was promoted for reported analgesic, sedative, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and anticonvulsant effects.
THC, an intoxicating and illegal substance, is responsible for causing marijuana users to get “high.” Unlike THC, CBD is non-psychoactive because it does not act on the same pathways as THC. Thus, it is impossible to get “high” by smoking or ingesting CBD or CBD oil extracted from industrial hemp plants, as they only have minuscule traces of THC (<0.3%).
A limited number of studies have examined the effects of cannabis smoking on the respiratory system.[85] Chronic heavy marijuana smoking is associated with coughing, production of sputum, wheezing, and other symptoms of chronic bronchitis.[68] The available evidence does not support a causal relationship between cannabis use and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.[86] Short-term use of cannabis is associated with bronchodilation.[87]
According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), "the amount of THC present in a cannabis sample is generally used as a measure of cannabis potency."[149] The three main forms of cannabis products are the flower, resin (hashish), and oil (hash oil). The UNODC states that cannabis often contains 5% THC content, resin "can contain up to 20% THC content", and that "Cannabis oil may contain more than 60% THC content."[149]
Hemp is possibly one of the earliest plants to be cultivated.[102][103] An archeological site in the Oki Islands near Japan contained cannabis achenes from about 8000 BC, probably signifying use of the plant.[104] Hemp use archaeologically dates back to the Neolithic Age in China, with hemp fiber imprints found on Yangshao culture pottery dating from the 5th millennium BC.[101][105] The Chinese later used hemp to make clothes, shoes, ropes, and an early form of paper.[101] The classical Greek historian Herodotus (ca. 480 BC) reported that the inhabitants of Scythia would often inhale the vapors of hemp-seed smoke, both as ritual and for their own pleasurable recreation.[106]

I am currently going through red skin syndrome/topical steroid withdrawal. The only cure as of now is time(6 months to 3 years) and waiting out horrible eczema-like flares. My main issue is burning/tingling skin that is almost constant. Steroids close off blood vessels and when you stop them they 'wake' up causing this nerve discomfort/pain. I've been smoking medical cannabis for the duration of my recovery(1.5 years) and It's done wonders except that the flare is around my mouth and I'm afraid the smoking is causing more issues.. as well as helping. I need to step up my game and take a different approach. I am wondering how to go about using cbd but I don't know where to start and was wondering if you could help. Thank you


Although the environmental and biodiversity benefits of growing hemp have been greatly exaggerated in the popular press, C. sativa is nevertheless exceptionally suitable for organic agriculture, and is remarkably less “ecotoxic” in comparison to most other crops (Montford and Small 1999b). Figure 50 presents a comparison of the ecological friendliness of Cannabis crops (fiber, oilseed, and narcotics) and 21 of the world’s major crops, based on 26 criteria used by Montford and Small (1999a) to compare the ecological friendliness of crops.
California Food and Agricultural Code (FAC) Section 81001 establishes an Industrial Hemp Advisory Board to advise CDFA and make recommendations pertaining to the cultivation of industrial hemp, including industrial hemp seed law and regulations, annual budgets, and the setting of an assessment rate. FAC Section 81001 also outlines the membership and administration of the Board.

Of course, parents who desperately want to find something—anything—that will help their sick children, don’t have the luxury of caring whether CBD is classified as a drug or a supplement, or whether they get it from a doctor or an online retailer. One reason why people are willing to trust companies like HempMedsPx is that, for some, CBD oil does seem to work.
Industrial hemp is a versatile agricultural plant which could one day be a valuable crop option for Pennsylvania farmers. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has taken some important steps toward making that a reality. Following Governor Wolf’s signing of the Industrial Hemp Research Act, Number 92 in 2016, the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture’s Industrial Hemp Research Pilot Program started issuing permits for research & growth of industrial hemp in 2017. Pennsylvania’s industrial hemp legislation was sparked by the passage of the 2014 Farm Bill, which gave federal permission for institutions of higher education or state Departments of Agriculture to research the cultivation and marketing of industrial hemp. As part of Pennsylvania’s Research Pilot Program, industrial hemp was legally grown in the Commonwealth after an 80 years hiatus. The Department of Agriculture has issued 35 research permits in the last two years to institutions of higher education and to farmers, business or individuals in contract with the Department to participate in the research of industrial hemp cultivation and marketing in Pennsylvania. In 2018, 35 research permits were issued to researchers, who cultivated industrial hemp in 25 Pennsylvania counties. 
Marijuana regulators in Washington State will entertain sweeping changes to how marijuana is tested, processed, packaged and sold in one of the U.S.’s oldest recreational marijuana markets, officials announced late Wednesday. Recreational cannabis has been sold in regulated retail outlets in Washington since 2014. Consumers there pay one of the country’s highest tax burdens, generating … Continue reading Washington State Prepares To Rewrite Marijuana Testing And Packaging Rules

Fig. 11. Frequency histograms of THC concentration in germplasm collections. Left, collection of E. Small and D. Marcus; of the 167 accessions, 43% had THC levels >0.3%. Right, the collection of the Vavilov Institute, St. Petersburg; of the 278 accessions for which chemical analyses were reported in Anonymous (1975), about 55% had THC levels >0.3%.
I am currently going through red skin syndrome/topical steroid withdrawal. The only cure as of now is time(6 months to 3 years) and waiting out horrible eczema-like flares. My main issue is burning/tingling skin that is almost constant. Steroids close off blood vessels and when you stop them they 'wake' up causing this nerve discomfort/pain. I've been smoking medical cannabis for the duration of my recovery(1.5 years) and It's done wonders except that the flare is around my mouth and I'm afraid the smoking is causing more issues.. as well as helping. I need to step up my game and take a different approach. I am wondering how to go about using cbd but I don't know where to start and was wondering if you could help. Thank you
I have sporadic back spasms for year I see a chiropractor monthly for maintenance (it help) and deal with daily Knee & hip joint pain due to my job (heavy mechanic/steel work with lots of walking). after reading all the great reviews on CBD oil I want to get off the daily ibuprofen regiment and try CBD oil. I would like to try it as a gel cap but would like some advise on dosage size. I also want to know how often I should take the CBD treatments. any and all advise is appreciated
There’s also been a lot of talk lately about “microdosing” CBD. This refers to an incremental process of finding your minimum effective dose. You can do this with any concentration of CBD oil, but lower concentrations will take longer. In a 2017 article in Rolling Stone, Dr. Dustan Sulak outlines his protocol for microdosing. You can begin this process by asking yourself three questions:

Locsta....I share your pain of degenerative and bulging disk disease, along with fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and arthritis. Absolutely no energy and chronic pain all day, every day. I'm curious as to what type and brand of the CBD oil you are taking and for how long have you been using it? I've been researching CBD oil for months and am quite confused!

Cannabis sativa is an annual wind-pollinated plant, normally dioecious and dimorphic, although sometimes monoecious (mostly in several modern European fiber cultivars). Figure 2 presents the basic morphology of the species. Some special hybrids, obtained by pollinating females of dioecious lines with pollen from monoecious plants, are predominantly female (so-called “all-female,” these generally also produce some hermaphrodites and occasional males). All-female lines are productive for some purposes (e.g. they are very uniform, and with very few males to take up space they can produce considerable grain), but the hybrid seed is expensive to produce. Staminate or “male” plants tend to be 10%–15% taller and are less robust than the pistillate or “female” (note the comparatively frail male in Fig. 3). So prolific is pollen production that an isolation distance of about 5 km is usually recommended for generating pure-bred foundation seed. A “perigonal bract” subtends each female flower, and grows to envelop the fruit. While small, secretory, resin-producing glands occur on the epidermis of most of the above-ground parts of the plant, the glands are very dense and productive on the perigonal bracts, which are accordingly of central interest in marijuana varieties. The root is a laterally branched taproot, generally 30–60 cm deep, up to 2.5 m in loose soils, very near the surface and more branched in wet soils. Extensive root systems are key to the ability of hemp crops to exploit deep supplies of nutrients and water. The stems are erect, furrowed, and usually branched, with a woody interior, and may be hollow in the internodes. Although the stem is often woody, the species is frequently referred to as a herb or forb. Plants vary enormously in height depending on genetic constitution and environment (Fig. 4), but are typically 1–5 m (heights of 12 m or more in cultivation have been claimed).
An observational study assessed the effectiveness of nabilone in advanced cancer patients who were experiencing pain and other symptoms (anorexia, depression, and anxiety). The researchers reported that patients who used nabilone experienced improved management of pain, nausea, anxiety, and distress when compared with untreated patients. Nabilone was also associated with a decreased use of opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentin, dexamethasone, metoclopramide, and ondansetron.[56]
In the meantime, some physicians are forging ahead — and cashing in. Joe Cohen is a doctor at Holos Health, a medical marijuana clinic in Boulder. I asked him what CBD is good for, and he read me a long list of conditions: pain, inflammation, nausea, vomiting, intestinal cramping, anxiety, psychosis, muscle spasms, hyperactive immune systems, nervous system degeneration, elevated blood sugar and more. He also claimed that CBD has anti-cancer properties and can regenerate brain cells and reduce the brain’s levels of amyloid beta — a kind of protein that’s been linked to Alzheimer’s disease. I asked for references, noting that most of these weren’t listed in the Academies report or a similar review published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. “I think you just have to Google search it,” he said. It’s true that a preliminary study found hints that cannabinoids might reduce beta amyloid proteins in human brain cells, but the study was done in cells grown in a lab, not in people. As for cancer, the FDA sent warning letters last year to four companies that were selling products that claimed to “prevent, diagnose, treat or cure” cancer.

I have sporadic back spasms for year I see a chiropractor monthly for maintenance (it help) and deal with daily Knee & hip joint pain due to my job (heavy mechanic/steel work with lots of walking). after reading all the great reviews on CBD oil I want to get off the daily ibuprofen regiment and try CBD oil. I would like to try it as a gel cap but would like some advise on dosage size. I also want to know how often I should take the CBD treatments. any and all advise is appreciated
Hi, I had ovarian cancer stage 2 and went to do chemotherapy for 16 times in 2014. It came back last year 2016 but I did not do chemotherapy or radiation therapy as suggested by the doctor. I am taking hormone therapy at the moment. I would like to use cannabis oil but which one and how much CBD and how much THC should I take for ovarian cancer? Can anyone give some idea?. Thank you very much.
On the other hand, marijuana-derived CBD and anything else derived from a cannabis plant was still classified by the DEA as a Schedule I drug (defined as a drug with "no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse") until October 2018. In 2016, the DEA stated that all extracts containing more than one cannabinoid would remain classified as Schedule I. However, the approval of Epidiolex had an influence in changing this, and prescription CBD drugs with a THC content of below 0.1% have now been reclassified as Schedule 5, the lowest rating.

There is some speculation that George Washington smoked the flower of the cannabis plant in order to achieve a recreational high ("Like all farmers, Washington probably sampled the quality and potency of what he grew, and he may have used this hemp to treat his chronic tooth aches"),[53] but there is no evidence in any of his writings that he grew hemp for anything other than industrial purposes. It is sometimes supposed that an excerpt from Washington's diary, which reads "Began to seperate [sic] the Male from the Female hemp at Do.&—rather too late" is evidence that he was trying to grow female plants for the THC found in the flowers. However, the editorial remark accompanying the diary states that "This may arise from their [the male] being coarser, and the stalks larger"[115] In subsequent days, he describes soaking the hemp[116] (to make the fibers usable) and harvesting the seeds,[117] suggesting that he was growing hemp for industrial purposes, not recreational.
Those warning letters aside, there’s not a lot of federal oversight right now over the claims being made or the products that are being sold. Cohen warned against buying CBD products online, because “there’s a lot of scams out there.” Yet his clinic sells CBD, and he admits, “I say ‘Don’t buy online,’ but ours is worth doing, because we know what we’re doing. We ship all over.”
Preclinical research suggests that emetic circuitry is tonically controlled by endocannabinoids. The antiemetic action of cannabinoids is believed to be mediated via interaction with the 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor. CB1 receptors and 5-HT3 receptors are colocalized on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons, where they have opposite effects on GABA release.[35] There also may be direct inhibition of 5-HT3 gated ion currents through non–CB1 receptor pathways. CB1 receptor antagonists have been shown to elicit emesis in the least shrew that is reversed by cannabinoid agonists.[36] The involvement of CB1 receptor in emesis prevention has been shown by the ability of CB1 antagonists to reverse the effects of THC and other synthetic cannabinoid CB1 agonists in suppressing vomiting caused by cisplatin in the house musk shrew and lithium chloride in the least shrew. In the latter model, CBD was also shown to be efficacious.[37,38]
In addition, both plant-derived and endogenous cannabinoids have been studied for anti-inflammatory effects. A mouse study demonstrated that endogenous cannabinoid system signaling is likely to provide intrinsic protection against colonic inflammation.[26] As a result, a hypothesis that phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids may be useful in the risk reduction and treatment of colorectal cancer has been developed.[27-30]
For most people with epilepsy, diagnosis sets off a gauntlet of trial-and-error attempts to find the right medication. The process is tortuous, with seizures alternately dying down and flaring up while side effects— fatigue, nausea, liver damage, and more—develop without warning. This is partly due to the fact that “epilepsy” is actually a broad category that includes a number of distinct seizure disorders. About 30 medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration are currently used to treat these conditions, and when a person first begins having seizures, there is often much tinkering with combinations and dosages. I spent years battling side effects like vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness, and severe headaches, which were alleviated only by yet another prescription medication. Parents who endure enough sleepless nights caring for a sick child can become desperate for a cure.
But there’s a big difference between the two. Hemp seed oil has been pressed from hemp seed, and it’s great for a lot of things – it’s good for you, tastes great, and can be used in soap, paint – even as biodiesel fuel. However, hemp seed oil does not contain any concentration of cannabinoids at all, including CBD. So by all means, stock up at your local natural food store. Just don’t expect to reap the benefits of a true CBD oil when you cook with hemp seed oil.

Medical reviews published in 2017 and 2018 incorporating numerous clinical trials concluded that cannabidiol is an effective treatment for certain types of childhood epilepsy.[19][20] An orally administered cannabidiol solution (brand name Epidiolex) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in June 2018 as a treatment for two rare forms of childhood epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome.[13]
Settlements which date from c. 2200–1700 BCE in the Bactria and Margiana contained elaborate ritual structures with rooms containing everything needed for making drinks containing extracts from poppy (opium), hemp (cannabis), and ephedra (which contains ephedrine).[113] Although there is no evidence of ephedra being used by steppe tribes, they engaged in cultic use of hemp. Cultic use ranged from Romania to the Yenisei River and had begun by 3rd millennium BC Smoking hemp has been found at Pazyryk.[114]
Canadian experience with growing hemp commercially for the last 4 years has convinced many growers that it is better to use a single-purpose cultivar, seed or fiber, than a dual-purpose cultivar. The recent focus of Canadian hemp breeders has been to develop cultivars with high seed yields, low stature (to avoid channeling the plants’ energy into stalk, as is the case in fiber cultivars), early maturation (for the short growing seasons of Canada), and desirable fatty acid spectrum (especially gamma-linolenic acid).
Beckerman also urged supporters of hemp (and of its danker cousin) to be more vigilant than ever about federal and state-level law and policy moves going forward. “Special interests and residual hysteria will continue to try to get in there, to stomp on the little guy, and on consumer rights and safety, and to over-regulate, so it’s more important than ever that we organize and engage,” she said.
Finally, the entire marijuana flower structure is coated with resinous crystals called trichomes. Trichomes are translucent, mushroom-like glands that form on the entire flowering structure and even the stems of the marijuana plant. These bulb-shaped glands secrete the rich, aromatic essential oils that give cannabis its smells and flavors. Trichomes also contain cannabinoids.

Jump up ^ Devinsky, Orrin; Cilio, Maria Roberta; Cross, Helen; Fernandez-Ruiz, Javier; French, Jacqueline; Hill, Charlotte; Katz, Russell; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Notcutt, William George; Martinez-Orgado, Jose; Robson, Philip J.; Rohrback, Brian G.; Thiele, Elizabeth; Whalley, Benjamin; Friedman, Daniel (22 May 2014). "Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders". Epilepsia. 55 (6): 791-802. doi:10.1111/epi.12631. PMC 4707667. PMID 24854329.
Although cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp both derive from the species Cannabis sativa and contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), they are distinct strains with unique phytochemical compositions and uses.[6] Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD), which decreases or eliminates its psychoactive effects.[6] The legality of industrial hemp varies widely between countries. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and permit only hemp that is bred with an especially low THC content.[7][8]
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