Jump up ^ Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Nozako M, Ogata A, Hazekawa M, Liu AX, Fujioka M, Abe K, Hasebe N, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M (March 2007). "Repeated treatment with cannabidiol but not Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol has a neuroprotective effect without the development of tolerance". Neuropharmacology. 52 (4): 1079–87. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2006.11.005. PMID 17320118.
Individuals who are considering participation in the Industrial Hemp Research Program in Kansas in 2019, whether as a grower, distributor or processor, can now submit a Pre-Application and Pre-Application Research Proposal. This is voluntary, and is not an application for a license, but will provide an opportunity to receive an informal review of your research proposal which can help expedite the process when the full research application is available. 
Even without changes at the federal level, there are steps that states could take on their own to make the CBD market safer. States with broad marijuana legality or CBD-only measures could mandate the calibration and regulation of testing labs, and use them to conduct safety testing. They could fund research into the benefits, dosing, and drug interactions of CBD through their public university systems. Medical boards could redouble efforts to educate physicians in what research exists regarding medical marijuana in all its incarnations, so that doctors are prepared to prescribe and manage these medications as they become available.
Hash oil is a resinous matrix of cannabinoids obtained from the Cannabis plant by solvent extraction,[175] formed into a hardened or viscous mass.[176] Hash oil can be the most potent of the main cannabis products because of its high level of psychoactive compound per its volume, which can vary depending on the plant's mix of essential oils and psychoactive compounds.[177] Butane and supercritical carbon dioxide hash oil have become popular in recent years.[178]
Canada is specialized on oilseed production and processing, so that hemp oil and grain are much more suitable than fiber. Because of the extensive development of oilseeds in Canada, there is extensive capacity to produce high-quality cold-pressed hemp oil. Canada in the last 5 years has made great advances in the growing, harvesting, and processing of hempseed, and indeed has moved ahead of the EU in the development of raw materials and products for the natural foods, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics industries. In the EU, a yield of 1 t/ha is considered good. In Canada, extraordinary yields of 1.5 t/ha have been realized, at least locally, although in the initial years of hempseed development in Canada yields were often less than 500 kg/ha. In 1999, the year of largest Canadian hemp acreage, yields averaged 900 kg/ha. (Ideally, hemp seed yield should be based on air dry weight—with about 12% moisture. Hemp yields are sometime uncertain, and could be exaggerated by as much as 50% when moist weights are reported.)
Although the environmental and biodiversity benefits of growing hemp have been greatly exaggerated in the popular press, C. sativa is nevertheless exceptionally suitable for organic agriculture, and is remarkably less “ecotoxic” in comparison to most other crops (Montford and Small 1999b). Figure 50 presents a comparison of the ecological friendliness of Cannabis crops (fiber, oilseed, and narcotics) and 21 of the world’s major crops, based on 26 criteria used by Montford and Small (1999a) to compare the ecological friendliness of crops.
Due to almost a century of misinformation about Cannabis, the distinction between Cannabis and its two primary species — hemp and marijuana — has become unclear to the many and some even consider the three plants to be one in the same. Because of this, the three terms are often used interchangeably, which has created difficulties when understanding the usage and benefits of Hemp vs Marijuana and Cannabis in general.
Mike, what kind of breast cancer (invasive ductal, I presume)? How many of her lymph nodes were positive? How big was the primary tumor? Reason I ask is that in women with Stage I or IIA tumors that are estrogen-and progesterone-receptor-positive and HER2-negative (ER+/PR+/HER2-) with three or fewer positive lymph nodes, there is a genomic assay test on a sample of the tumor, called OncotypeDX, that will tell doctors whether chemo is necessary or would even work at all. Medicare covers that test 100%.That type of breast cancer mentioned above, which I had as Stage IA, is treated in postmenopausal women with anti-estrogen drugs called aromatase inhibitors(aka AIs: anastrazole, letrozole, or exemestane)which have as a side effect joint pain. CBD oil is effective for this joint pain it is not, I repeat, NOT a substitute for chemo, radiation or these anti-estrogen drugs.So don’t assume your mom’s cancer will require chemo; but if it does, CBD helps with those side effects as well. If she lives in a state where medical marijuana is legal, there are doctors who sub-specialize in certifying applications for a medical marijuana card, and in the interim before the card is issued can advise as to the appropriate dose of CBD oil (legal and over-the-counter in all 50 states). Some (though not most) medical oncologists will certify their own patients’ medical marijuana card applications so she need not seek out another doctor; and will advise the appropriate dose for her symptoms. Once she gets her card, the “budtenders” in the licensed dispensaries can advise her as to the right CBD product (with or without THC), strength, and dosage. If she lives in a state where recreational weed is legal, the “budtenders” in the marijuana shops can steer her to the right strength of CBD oil and the right dosage.
I totally agree. The greed of the pharmaceutical with their lobbyist to stop the government from making it a schedule III drug so much more research can be done. They do not care about the people, just money. We the people must rise up and let our government know, we care more about our friends and family than the money they give, to you congress men/women and senators get, and we VOTE. The only power we have is writing or calling congress men/women and senators, huge rallies and each and every ones VOTE. They would rather stay in office, than even receive big monies from big pharm for their campaigns. VOTES will win over.

There are also other difficulties in researching the effects of cannabis. Many people who smoke cannabis also smoke tobacco.[265] This causes confounding factors, where questions arise as to whether the tobacco, the cannabis, or both that have caused a cancer. Another difficulty researchers have is in recruiting people who smoke cannabis into studies. Because cannabis is an illegal drug in many countries, people may be reluctant to take part in research, and if they do agree to take part, they may not say how much cannabis they actually smoke.[266]
Concrete-like blocks made with hemp and lime have been used as an insulating material for construction. Such blocks are not strong enough to be used for structural elements; they must be supported by a brick, wood, or steel frame.[25] However, hemp fibres are extremely strong and durable, and have been shown to be usable as a replacement for wood for many jobs, including creating very durable and breathable homes. The most common use of hemp lime in building is by casting the hemp and lime mix while wet around a timber frame with temporary shuttering, and tamping the mix to form a firm mass; after the removal of the temporary shuttering, the solidified hemp mix is then ready to be plastered with a lime plaster.[26]

Thermal Insulation. Thermal insulation products (Fig. 20, 21) are the third most important sector of the hemp industry of the EU. These are in very high demand because of the alarmingly high costs of heating fuels, ecological concerns about conservation of non-renewable resources, and political-strategic concerns about dependence on current sources of oil. This is a market that is growing very fast, and hemp insulation products are increasing in popularity. In Europe, it has been predicted that tens of thousands of tonnes will be sold by 2005, shared between hemp and flax (Karus et al. 2000).
A 2012 review found that the THC content in marijuana had increased worldwide from 1970 to 2009.[150] It is unclear, however, whether the increase in THC content has caused people to consume more THC or if users adjust based on the potency of the cannabis. It is likely that the higher THC content allows people to ingest less tar. At the same time, CBD levels in seized samples have lowered, in part because of the desire to produce higher THC levels and because more illegal growers cultivate indoors using artificial lights. This helps avoid detection but reduces the CBD production of the plant.[151]

Spring Hope, NC, Nov. 13, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- via NEWMEDIAWIRE -- Hemp, Inc. (OTC PINK: HEMP), a global leader in the industrial hemp industry with bi-coastal processing centers including the largest multipurpose industrial hemp processing facility in the western hemisphere (in Spring Hope, North Carolina), announced today that the company is one of the largest sponsors for the 4th Annual Jack Herer Cup on November 15, 2018. At the event, Hemp, Inc. CEO Bruce Perlowin will receive an award for being a trailblazer in the hemp industry. To learn more about the 4th Annual Jack Herer Cup or to RSVP, click here.
Cannabis is first referred to in Hindu Vedas between 2000 and 1400 BCE, in the Atharvaveda. By the 10th century CE, it has been suggested that it was referred to by some in India as "food of the gods".[115] Cannabis use eventually became a ritual part of the Hindu festival of Holi. One of the earliest to use this plant in medical purposes was Korakkar, one of the 18 Siddhas.[116][117] The plant is called Korakkar Mooli in the Tamil language, meaning Korakkar's herb.[118][119]
Cannabinoids may also contribute to pain modulation through an anti-inflammatory mechanism; a CB2 effect with cannabinoids acting on mast cell receptors to attenuate the release of inflammatory agents, such as histamine and serotonin, and on keratinocytes to enhance the release of analgesic opioids has been described.[45-47] One study reported that the efficacy of synthetic CB1- and CB2-receptor agonists were comparable with the efficacy of morphine in a murine model of tumor pain.[48]
Hi Colleen, it's almost a year later and I'm wondering how you're doing. I'm experiencing a recurrence of Stage 3 ovarian, originally diagnosed in 2011. I've decided to get some chemo, not sold on another 6 cycles though. As a new MMJ patient, I'm still going to go through with Rick Simpson Oil (THC+CBD,) and I just joined a program with my local dispensary to get CBD capsules for $2 each when I order them at least 30 at a time. I hope you're doing well!! I'm off to do more research on dosing. **NOTE: If you have ANY experience with CBD treatment of ovarian cancer, PLEASE respond. Thank you!!
Selective breeding of cannabis plants has expanded and diversified as commercial and therapeutic markets develop. Some growers in the U.S. succeeded in lowering the proportion of CBD-to-THC to accommodate customers who preferred varietals that were more mind-altering due to the higher THC and lower CBD content.[58] Hemp is classified as any part of the cannabis plant containing no more than 0.3% THC in dry weight form (not liquid or extracted form).[59]
Another clinical trial that involved 139 patients with HIV or AIDS and weight loss found that, compared with placebo, oral dronabinol was associated with a statistically significant increase in appetite after 4 to 6 weeks of treatment. Patients receiving dronabinol tended to have weight stabilization, whereas patients receiving placebo continued to lose weight.[43]
Locsta....I share your pain of degenerative and bulging disk disease, along with fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and arthritis. Absolutely no energy and chronic pain all day, every day. I'm curious as to what type and brand of the CBD oil you are taking and for how long have you been using it? I've been researching CBD oil for months and am quite confused!
Strasser F, Luftner D, Possinger K, et al.: Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-In-Cachexia-Study-Group. J Clin Oncol 24 (21): 3394-400, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
As marijuana is legalized in more and more states, the wellness world has whipped itself into a frenzy over a non-intoxicating cannabis derivative called cannabidiol. CBD products can be found on the internet and in health-food stores, wellness catalogs and even bookstores. (A bookstore in downtown Boulder, Colorado, displays a case of CBD products between the cash register and the stacks of new releases.) Celebrities like Gwyneth Paltrow, disgraced cyclist1 Floyd Landis and former Denver Broncos quarterback Jake Plummer are all touting CBD products, and according to Bon Appétit, CBD-infused lattes have become “the wellness world’s new favorite drink.”
In the early 1990s, industrial hemp agriculture in North America began with the Hemp Awareness Committee at the University of Manitoba. The Committee worked with the provincial government to get research and development assistance, and was able to obtain test plot permits from the Canadian government. Their efforts led to the legalization of industrial hemp (hemp with only minute amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol) in Canada and the first harvest in 1998.[77][78]
CBD has been producing a whole lot of buzz in the health community of late – but perhaps not the kind of buzz you might expect from a cannabinoid. Since you’re reading this, you’ve probably heard of CBD and its many touted benefits. From chronic pain to mental health, CBD has the potential to alleviate an astonishing number of ailments. But like many, you might be fuzzy on the details. Consider this your primer on all things CBD.
It’s also worth noting that more and more people now use cannabis for medicinal purposes, as it is known to offer pain relief for some chronic conditions, as well as stimulate the appetite for people who are sick and may not feel like eating (such as cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy). Despite evidence that cannabis has medical benefits, you should always discuss your options for medical treatment with your doctor and use medical cannabis under their supervision.

Environmental sex determination is known to occur in a variety of species.[38] Many researchers have suggested that sex in Cannabis is determined or strongly influenced by environmental factors.[26] Ainsworth reviews that treatment with auxin and ethylene have feminizing effects, and that treatment with cytokinins and gibberellins have masculinizing effects.[14] It has been reported that sex can be reversed in Cannabis using chemical treatment.[39] A PCR-based method for the detection of female-associated DNA polymorphisms by genotyping has been developed.[40]
My mother has dementia/Alzheimers along with a broken knee that they will not repair do to her mental status. She is currently in a nursing home. I firmly believe her mental situation began with the over use of hydrocodone for over 30 years and was acerbated by the trauma of breaking and disconnecting her knee cap. Since weaning her off of her meds (still in progress) we have regained much of her consciousness. I want to try CBD to help in her recovery or to help slow down the disease. I cannot find a dosage recommendation plus the nursing home/doctor does not recommend it. I would need to give it to her when I am there visiting (about 3 - 4 times per week). Is there a recommended dosage for dementia/Alzheimers?
In an in vivo model using severe combined immunodeficient mice, subcutaneous tumors were generated by inoculating the animals with cells from human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines.[23] Tumor growth was inhibited by 60% in THC-treated mice compared with vehicle-treated control mice. Tumor specimens revealed that THC had antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects. However, research with immunocompetent murine tumor models has demonstrated immunosuppression and enhanced tumor growth in mice treated with THC.[24,25]
Smoking cannabis can have an immediate effect. It can take an hour or more to feel the effects when eaten. Cannabis can make you feel relaxed, giggly, and hungry, or hallucinate or have a dry mouth. Using more cannabis can result in negative effects including blurred vision, bloodshot eyes, feeling sluggish, difficulty concentrating, slower reflexes, increased heart rate and lower blood pressure, and feelings of paranoia and anxiety.

Finding cultivars suited to local conditions is a key to success. Hemp prefers warm growing conditions, and the best European fiber strains are photoperiodically adapted to flowering in southern Europe, which provides seasons of at least 4 months for fiber, and 5.5 months for seed production. Asian land races are similarly adapted to long seasons. In Canada, many of the available cultivars flower too late in the season for fiber production, and the same may be predicted for the northern US. Fiber production should also be governed by availability of moisture throughout the season, and the need for high humidity in the late summer and fall for retting, so that large areas of the interior and west of North America are not adapted to growing fiber hemp. The US Corn Belt has traditionally been considered to be best for fiber hemp. There are very few cultivars dedicated to oilseed production (such as ‘Finola’ and ‘Anka’) or that at least are known to produce good oilseed crops (such as ‘Fasamo’ and ‘Uniko-B’). Oilseed production was a specialty of the USSR, and there is some likelihood that northern regions of North America may find short-season, short-stature oilseed cultivars ideal.
The use of Cannabis for seed oil (Fig. 36) began at least 3 millennia ago. Hempseed oil is a drying oil, formerly used in paints and varnishes and in the manufacture of soap. Present cultivation of oilseed hemp is not competitive with linseed for production of oil for manufacturing, or to sunflower and canola for edible vegetable oil. However, as noted below, there are remarkable dietary advantages to hempseed oil, which accordingly has good potential for penetrating the salad oil market, and for use in a very wide variety of food products. There is also good potential for hemp oil in cosmetics and skin-care products.
Cannabinoids, terpenoids, and other compounds are secreted by glandular trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes and bracts of female plants.[41] As a drug it usually comes in the form of dried flower buds (marijuana), resin (hashish), or various extracts collectively known as hashish oil.[7] In the early 20th century, it became illegal in most of the world to cultivate or possess Cannabis for sale or personal use.
According to DSM-V criteria, 9% of those who are exposed to cannabis develop cannabis use disorder, compared to 20% for cocaine, 23% for alcohol and 68% for nicotine. Cannabis abuse disorder in the DSM-V involves a combination of DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence, plus the addition of craving, minus the criterion related to legal troubles.[110]
Several studies have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids for nausea and vomiting in the advanced stages of illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. Dronabinol (tetrahydrocannabinol) has been available by prescription for more than a decade in the USA. Other therapeutic uses of cannabinoids are being demonstrated by controlled studies, including treatment of asthma and glaucoma, as an antidepressant, appetite stimulant, anticonvulsant and anti-spasmodic, research in this area should continue. For example, more basic research on the central and peripheral mechanisms of the effects of cannabinoids on gastrointestinal function may improve the ability to alleviate nausea and emesis. More research is needed on the basic neuropharmacology of THC and other cannabinoids so that better therapeutic agents can be found.

An analysis of 84,170 participants in the California Men’s Health Study was performed to investigate the association between Cannabis use and the incidence of bladder cancer. During 16 years of follow-up, 89 Cannabis users (0.3%) developed bladder cancer compared with 190 (0.4%) of the men who did not report Cannabis use (P < .001). After adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, and body mass index, Cannabis use was associated with a 45% reduction in bladder cancer incidence (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.33–1.00).[16]
Cannabidiol can be taken into the body in multiple different ways, including by inhalation of cannabis smoke or vapor, as an aerosol spray into the cheek, and by mouth. It may be supplied as an oil containing only CBD as the active ingredient (no added THC or terpenes), a full-plant CBD-dominant hemp extract oil, capsules, dried cannabis, or as a prescription liquid solution.[1][3]
Based on world production of fibers in 1999, about 54.5% was synthetic (of which 60.3% was polyester), 42.9% was plant fiber (of which 78.5% was cotton), and 2.6% was wool (Karus 2000). In addition to cotton, flax is the only other significant plant fiber crop grown in temperate regions of the world (kenaf has received some enthusiastic backing in the southern US in recent years, but is most cheaply produced in India, Bangladesh, and China). Flax held 2.7% of the world plant fiber market in 1999, while hemp had only 0.3% (Karus 2000). Hemp fiber can potentially replace other biological fibers in many applications, but also, as noted below, can sometimes compete with minerals such as glass fiber and steel. As forests diminish, cultivation of annual plants as fiber sources is likely to increase. While crop residues like cereal straw will probably supply much of the need, specialty fiber plants such as hemp also have potential. The four conditions that will need to be met are (after Bolton 1995): (1) the material should be produced at a large enough scale; (2) the price should be low enough; (3) the fiber characteristics should be adequate for the end use; and (4) proven technology should be available for the processing of the new raw material. Of these criteria only point 3 is adequately met at this time for hemp in North America, but this is to be expected in a crop that has only begun to be cultivated after an absence of many years.

Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep),[1] typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.[2] It is one of the fastest growing plants[3] and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago.[4] It can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, paint, insulation, biofuel, food, and animal feed.[5]
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