The Food and Drug Adminstration’s approval of Epidiolex, a medication derived from cannabis, could be life-changing for Americans suffering from certain types of epilepsy. — Jon Cooper, STAT, "New drug approval should force the DEA to rethink cannabis-derived medicines," 26 June 2018 Aside from cannabis, the state appears to have a fairly sunny budget picture. — Adam Ashton, sacbee, "California's marijuana tax collections lag below expectations | The Sacramento Bee," 9 May 2018 The researchers note, however, that abstaining from cannabis for just a few days would likely reverse any blockade. — Beth Mole, Ars Technica, "Here are the types of marijuana best for stress and anxiety, according to users," 20 Apr. 2018 And the best way to do that is by lowering the price of cannabis. — Dan Adams, BostonGlobe.com, "The hidden, high-tech world of communications at Fenway Park," 10 July 2018 The British drugmaker studied the drug in more than 500 patients with hard-to-treat seizures, overcoming numerous legal hurdles to conducting research with cannabis. — Fox News, "Medical milestone: US OKs marijuana-based drug for seizures," 25 June 2018 The British drugmaker studied the drug in more than 500 patients with hard-to-treat seizures, overcoming numerous legal hurdles to conducting research with cannabis. — Matthew Perrone, The Seattle Times, "Medical milestone: US OKs marijuana-based drug for seizures," 25 June 2018 GW Pharmaceuticals says the solution, taken by mouth, is made from a proprietary strain of cannabis designed to maximize a therapeutic component while minimizing components that produce euphoria. — Peter Loftus, WSJ, "FDA Approves First Drug Derived From Marijuana Plant," 25 June 2018 Very often pharmacies with cannabis for sale see long queues forming at the door. — Tamra Santana, Houston Chronicle, "Home building boom continues for Spring, Klein, Tomball and Cypress communities," 14 May 2018
A Cochrane meta-analysis of 23 randomized RCTs reviewed studies conducted between 1975 and 1991 that investigated dronabinol or nabilone, either as monotherapy or as an adjunct to the conventional dopamine antagonists that were the standard antiemetics at that time.[33] The chemotherapy regimens involved drugs with low, moderate, or high emetic potential. The meta-analysis graded the quality of evidence as low for most outcomes. The review concluded that individuals were more likely to report complete absence of N/V when they received cannabinoids compared with placebo, although they were more likely to withdraw from the study because of an adverse event. Individuals reported a higher preference for cannabinoids than placebo or prochlorperazine. There was no difference in the antiemetic effect of cannabinoids when compared with prochlorperazine. The authors concluded that Cannabis-based medications may be useful for treating refractory chemotherapy-induced N/V; however, they cautioned that their assessment may change with the availability of newer antiemetic regimens.
All this talk about THC lands us nicely in the whole “Full Spectrum vs. Pure Isolate” debate. Once you begin shopping for CBD products, you’ll notice a lot of jargon that gets thrown around without much explanation. Now that we’ve introduced THC into the conversation, we can talk about the difference between, and relative benefits of, Full Spectrum CBD and CBD Isolate (and the lesser-known contender: Broad Spectrum).

The “re-“growth of industrial hemp in the United States is heavily regulated, although the neighbouring nation of Canada successfully grows hemp commercially.  Since becoming legal to grow again in Canada, the crop has taken off and has become a booming multi-million dollar export.  Hemp building materials are another growing segment of the hemp industry.  Canada is now a leader in the global hemp food/health marketplace.  Canadian hemp products can be found in many hemp markets now in the United States and the world over.
Participants must pay the $400 fee to receive industrial hemp seed through the DEA approved pilot program. Applicants must secure seed orders from DEA approved international seed suppliers. The department will work with the seed suppliers to secure import and export permits to have the seed delivered to the department. Seed costs and shipping are not included in the fee.
One of the biggest players in this new industry is Medical Marijuana, Inc., a company formed in 2009 that operates out of Poway, California, just north of San Diego. It has played a leading role in the so-called Green Rush, as businesses have moved quickly to capitalize on the gradual legalization of marijuana for medical and recreational purposes by states across the country. The company’s spokesman, Andrew Hard, boasted that Medical Marijuana, Inc., “created the CBD industry and was first to market with CBD products.” Through its various subsidiaries, Medical Marijuana, Inc. sells some of the most recognizable products on the cannabis market— everything from Cibaderm CBD-infused shampoo to CanChew chewing gum. In 2014, the company generated $14.5 million in revenue.

A panellized system of hemp-lime panels for use in building construction is currently under test in a European Union-funded research collaboration led by the University of Bath. The panels are being designed to assure high-quality construction, rapid on-site erection, optimal hygrothermal performance from day one, and energy- and resource-efficient buildings. The 36-month-long work programme aims to refine product and manufacturing protocols, produce data for certification and marketing, warranty, insurance cover, and availability of finance. It also includes the development of markets in Britain, France, and Spain.[32]
Hi Lauren I've just started today with 250mg cbd oil. I'm starting low to see what happens. I've nerve damage across buttocks from a laminectomy. I've not been able to sit for 5 years. I've recently started with a muscle spasm in my left buttock and the muscle above is painful. It is only the first day, also tried a cbd night time tea as well. Do change in muscle pain so tight on my left hand side. How long before felt it starting to work please. I'm trying not to expect changes straightaway. I also take 1100mg gabapentin and 30mg amitriptyline and I hate both of them - they both can cause muscle tightness affecting the nerve. Thank you Lyn
Hi…I read your statement about hemp being a cream that takes pain away. Living in Oregon there’s no talk about “hemp” but I don’t doubt your experience with it..and I’m wondering where you found it..so that maybe I can get a jar of it and see if it would help my aches and pains….I would really appreciate your response…and thanks for your “reply” that motivated me to write to you..
I have/had ovarian/primary peritoneal cancer. I used thc/cbd oil pills I self made from the start. I am supposedly their “poster child”. I went thru with chemo and surgery. Oh that horror! But when I tried to tell two seperate doctors, the surgeon was all about it, and my oncologist threw a fit and said it was an anecdote. There are more than 100 studies at the NIH govt website.
The manufacturer will probably give you a recommended dosage, but bear in mind that this isn’t set in stone. What you need to find is your own minimum effective dose. “Minimum effective dose” is a medical term which refers to the amount of a substance you need for the results you want, and above which, the substance doesn’t increase in effectiveness.
Public heath insurance programs would be required to cover medical marijuana in New York if a new Assembly bill is enacted. “Cost is the primary barrier to patient access in New York’s medical marijuana program,” reads a memo attached to the legislation. “Medicaid, other public health plans, and commercial health insurance plans do not cover … Continue reading New York Bill Would Require Medical Marijuana Be Covered By Public Health Insurance
It is for this reason that all the finished hemp goods that you see for sale in America, from food products to clothing to building materials, are part of an imported hemp industry that has surpassed $688 million annually. The size of this import industry is one of the major catalysts for hemp legalization in the U.S. As a renewable source of a range of products, hemp provides an exciting new step in American agriculture.
CDFA's Commercial Feed Regulatory Program (CFRP) is responsible for the enforcement of California state law and regulations pertinent to the manufacturing, distribution and labeling of commercial livestock feed while preventing adulterated feed from being consumed by livestock and poultry. For more information regarding livestock feed, contact CDFA's CFRP.
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Dosage is important, because CBD can have side effects—the most common are tiredness, diarrhea, and changes in appetite and weight—so it’s best not to take more than you need. As CBD becomes more prevalent, says J. Michael Bostwick, M.D., a psychiatrist at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, “I’m reasonably certain new kinds of side effects will emerge.”
In the United Kingdom, cultivation licences are issued by the Home Office under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. When grown for nondrug purposes, hemp is referred to as industrial hemp, and a common product is fibre for use in a wide variety of products, as well as the seed for nutritional aspects and for the oil. Feral hemp or ditch weed is usually a naturalized fibre or oilseed strain of Cannabis that has escaped from cultivation and is self-seeding.[86]
Hemp, the non-psychoactive variety of the cannabis sativa plant, is already being integrated into several mature markets such as food, textiles, construction, personal care and nutraceuticals. This relatively quiet cannabis relative is emerging as a potential commodity ripe to not only impact, but possibly revolutionize, tech-driven markets and economies around the world.
Only a handful of countries have legalized recreational marijuana. Uruguay was one of the first, in 2013. The Netherlands is perhaps the country most known for legal marijuana, yet the drug is illegal there. Spain has given its citizens the rights to grow and consume cannabis privately. Peru also allows citizens to possess marijuana as long as it is for personal, private use. As in Costa Rica, where people can have a “small amount,” without legal trouble.
bNumber of patients treated plus number of patient controls may not equal number of patients enrolled; number of patients enrolled equals number of patients initially recruited/considered by the researchers who conducted a study; number of patients treated equals number of enrolled patients who were given the treatment being studied AND for whom results were reported.
My husband was diagnosed with ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) when he was 61 years old 4 years ago. The Rilutek (riluzole) did very little to help him. The medical team did even less. His decline was rapid and devastating. His arms weakened first, then his hands and legs. Last year, a family friend told us about Rich Herbs Foundation (RHF) and their successful ALS TREATMENT, we visited their website www. richherbsfoundation. com and ordered their ALS/MND Formula, i am happy to report the treatment effectively treated and reversed his Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), most of the symptoms stopped, he is able to walk and able to ride his treadmill again, he is pretty active now.
One systematic review studied 30 randomized comparisons of delta-9-THC preparations with placebo or other antiemetics from which data on efficacy and harm were available.[31] Oral nabilone, oral dronabinol, and intramuscular levonantradol (a synthetic analog of dronabinol) were tested. Inhaled Cannabis trials were not included. Among all 1,366 patients included in the review, cannabinoids were found to be more effective than the conventional antiemetics prochlorperazine, metoclopramide, chlorpromazine, thiethylperazine, haloperidol, domperidone, and alizapride. Cannabinoids, however, were not more effective for patients receiving very low or very high emetogenic chemotherapy. Side effects included a feeling of being high, euphoria, sedation or drowsiness, dizziness, dysphoria or depression, hallucinations, paranoia, and hypotension.[31]
Do you think CBD oil may be right for you? Then check out Green Roads CBD oils for the highest-quality CBD tinctures on the market! We offer CBD hemp oil tinctures in a different range of dosages, from 100mg to 3500mg per bottle, to meet your specific needs. Designed to fit into your daily routine and easy to buy online, Green Roads CBD oils were made with our customers in mind.

Marijuana and hemp both come from the same species of plant, Cannabis sativa. Once it was discovered the plant’s flowers can can have psychoactive effects, cultivators began growing separate strains of the plant – one normal variety, and one whose flowers contained higher levels of the cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), leading to tighter regulation.

Although hemp can be successfully grown continuously for several years on the same land, rotation with other crops is desirable. A 3- or preferably 4-year rotation may involve cereals, clover or alfalfa for green manure, maize, and hemp. In Ontario it has been recommended that hemp not follow canola, edible beans, soybeans or sunflowers. However, according to Bócsa and Karus (1998), “it matters little what crops are grown prior to hemp.”
Cannabis is by far the most widely cultivated, trafficked and abused illicit drug. Half of all drug seizures worldwide are cannabis seizures. The geographical spread of those seizures is also global, covering practically every country of the world. About 147 million people, 2.5% of the world population, consume cannabis (annual prevalence) compared with 0.2% consuming cocaine and 0.2% consuming opiates. In the present decade, cannabis abuse has grown more rapidly than cocaine and opiate abuse. The most rapid growth in cannabis abuse since the 1960s has been in developed countries in North America, Western Europe and Australia. Cannabis has become more closely linked to youth culture and the age of initiation is usually lower than for other drugs. An analysis of cannabis markets shows that low prices coincide with high levels of abuse, and vice versa. Cannabis appears to be price-inelastic in the short term, but fairly elastic over the longer term. Though the number of cannabis consumers is greater than opiate and cocaine consumers, the lower prices of cannabis mean that, in economic terms, the cannabis market is much smaller than the opiate or cocaine market.
"A CBD company may create a CBD oil, test it, and use the test results to create their label," Bonn-Miller says. "The problem is if they never test their product again, or they test it once a year, you have no idea whether each batch is the same as the first one that they used to create the label. The vast majority of companies are not using manufacturing standards that assure product consistency over time. Companies should be testing every batch they make and tossing batches that don't fall within the specs of their label."

On the other hand, marijuana-derived CBD and anything else derived from a cannabis plant was still classified by the DEA as a Schedule I drug (defined as a drug with "no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse") until October 2018. In 2016, the DEA stated that all extracts containing more than one cannabinoid would remain classified as Schedule I. However, the approval of Epidiolex had an influence in changing this, and prescription CBD drugs with a THC content of below 0.1% have now been reclassified as Schedule 5, the lowest rating.
Lewis has even built his own machine to process the hemp. Using a Patagonia grant, he created a piece of equipment called a “break”, which incorporates design details borrowed from early European flax roller breaks. Lewis’s invention is a one-of-a-kind machine. It works by separating the hemp’s woody core from the fibers which are used in textiles. According to Lewis, the highest quantity of finished hemp fiber processed in a day using the machine is around 60lbs – which means about 600lbs of raw material. A newer version of the break, which Lewis is currently working on, will have a capacity to produce about 2000lbs per day of raw material.
Hemp, Canabis sativa is a plant originally from central Asia. It was cultivated with, and sometimes in place of flax because the stem fibers are similar. By the seventeenth century, Russia, Latvia, and other countries around the Baltic Sea were the major producers of hemp. It was from these areas Britain obtained its supply. However, during periods of military hostilities, the English had trouble acquiring enough hemp.

The question of whether heteromorphic sex chromosomes are indeed present is most conveniently answered if such chromosomes were clearly visible in a karyotype. Cannabis was one of the first plant species to be karyotyped; however, this was in a period when karyotype preparation was primitive by modern standards (see History of Cytogenetics). Heteromorphic sex chromosomes were reported to occur in staminate individuals of dioecious "Kentucky" hemp, but were not found in pistillate individuals of the same variety. Dioecious "Kentucky" hemp was assumed to use an XY mechanism. Heterosomes were not observed in analyzed individuals of monoecious "Kentucky" hemp, nor in an unidentified German cultivar. These varieties were assumed to have sex chromosome composition XX.[31] According to other researchers, no modern karyotype of Cannabis had been published as of 1996.[32] Proponents of the XY system state that Y chromosome is slightly larger than the X, but difficult to differentiate cytologically.[33]

A Cochrane meta-analysis of 23 randomized RCTs reviewed studies conducted between 1975 and 1991 that investigated dronabinol or nabilone, either as monotherapy or as an adjunct to the conventional dopamine antagonists that were the standard antiemetics at that time.[33] The chemotherapy regimens involved drugs with low, moderate, or high emetic potential. The meta-analysis graded the quality of evidence as low for most outcomes. The review concluded that individuals were more likely to report complete absence of N/V when they received cannabinoids compared with placebo, although they were more likely to withdraw from the study because of an adverse event. Individuals reported a higher preference for cannabinoids than placebo or prochlorperazine. There was no difference in the antiemetic effect of cannabinoids when compared with prochlorperazine. The authors concluded that Cannabis-based medications may be useful for treating refractory chemotherapy-induced N/V; however, they cautioned that their assessment may change with the availability of newer antiemetic regimens.
"Skunk" refers to several named strains of potent cannabis, grown through selective breeding and sometimes hydroponics. It is a cross-breed of Cannabis sativa and C. indica (although other strains of this mix exist in abundance). Skunk cannabis potency ranges usually from 6% to 15% and rarely as high as 20%. The average THC level in coffee shops in the Netherlands is about 18–19%.[242]

Cannabis is predominantly dioecious,[12][14] having imperfect flowers, with staminate "male" and pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants.[15] "At a very early period the Chinese recognized the Cannabis plant as dioecious",[16] and the (c. 3rd century BCE) Erya dictionary defined xi 枲 "male Cannabis" and fu 莩 (or ju 苴) "female Cannabis".[17] Male flowers are normally borne on loose panicles, and female flowers are borne on racemes.[18]


Industrial hemp is a versatile agricultural plant which could one day be a valuable crop option for Pennsylvania farmers. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has taken some important steps toward making that a reality. Following Governor Wolf’s signing of the Industrial Hemp Research Act, Number 92 in 2016, the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture’s Industrial Hemp Research Pilot Program started issuing permits for research & growth of industrial hemp in 2017. Pennsylvania’s industrial hemp legislation was sparked by the passage of the 2014 Farm Bill, which gave federal permission for institutions of higher education or state Departments of Agriculture to research the cultivation and marketing of industrial hemp. As part of Pennsylvania’s Research Pilot Program, industrial hemp was legally grown in the Commonwealth after an 80 years hiatus. The Department of Agriculture has issued 35 research permits in the last two years to institutions of higher education and to farmers, business or individuals in contract with the Department to participate in the research of industrial hemp cultivation and marketing in Pennsylvania. In 2018, 35 research permits were issued to researchers, who cultivated industrial hemp in 25 Pennsylvania counties. 
Cannabinoids may cause antitumor effects by various mechanisms, including induction of cell death, inhibition of cell growth, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis invasion and metastasis.[9-12] Two reviews summarize the molecular mechanisms of action of cannabinoids as antitumor agents.[13,14] Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their nontransformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death. For example, these compounds have been shown to induce apoptosis in glioma cells in culture and induce regression of glioma tumors in mice and rats, while they protect normal glial cells of astroglial and oligodendroglial lineages from apoptosis mediated by the CB1 receptor.[9]
Cannabis was also known to the ancient Assyrians, who discovered its psychoactive properties through the Iranians.[187] Using it in some religious ceremonies, they called it qunubu (meaning "way to produce smoke"), a probable origin of the modern word "cannabis".[188] The Iranians also introduced cannabis to the Scythians, Thracians and Dacians, whose shamans (the kapnobatai—"those who walk on smoke/clouds") burned cannabis flowers to induce trance.[189]
Whether the drug and non-drug, cultivated and wild types of Cannabis constitute a single, highly variable species, or the genus is polytypic with more than one species, has been a subject of debate for well over two centuries. This is a contentious issue because there is no universally accepted definition of a species.[53] One widely applied criterion for species recognition is that species are "groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups."[54] Populations that are physiologically capable of interbreeding, but morphologically or genetically divergent and isolated by geography or ecology, are sometimes considered to be separate species.[54] Physiological barriers to reproduction are not known to occur within Cannabis, and plants from widely divergent sources are interfertile.[42] However, physical barriers to gene exchange (such as the Himalayan mountain range) might have enabled Cannabis gene pools to diverge before the onset of human intervention, resulting in speciation.[55] It remains controversial whether sufficient morphological and genetic divergence occurs within the genus as a result of geographical or ecological isolation to justify recognition of more than one species.[56][57][58]
It’s easy to see why vaping has become such a popular method for consuming marijuana. The method is remarkably discrete and produces none of the telltale “weed smells” that often betray cannabis users. Vape pens and other hand-held devices are portable and convenient. They’re free of many of the harsh marijuana plant compounds that can harm your lung health, like tars. And companies are getting better at crafting high-quality, flavorful vape cartridges with a wide array of cannabinoid profiles.
The most widespread claim for environmental friendliness of hemp is that it has the potential to save trees that otherwise would be harvested for production of lumber and pulp. Earlier, the limitations of hemp as a pulp substitute were examined. With respect to wood products, several factors appear to favor increased use of wood substitutes, especially agricultural fibers such as hemp. Deforestation, particularly the destruction of old growth forests, and the world’s decreasing supply of wild timber resources are today major ecological concerns. Agroforestry using tree species is one useful response, but nevertheless sacrifices wild lands and biodiversity, and is less preferable than sustainable wildland forestry. The use of agricultural residues (e.g. straw bales in house construction) is an especially environmentally friendly solution to sparing trees, but material limitations restrict use. Another chief advantage of several annual fiber crops over forestry crops is relative productivity, annual fiber crops sometimes producing of the order of four times as much per unit of land. Still another important advantage is the precise control over production quantities and schedule that is possible with annual crops. In many parts of the world, tree crops are simply not a viable alternative. “By the turn of the century 3 billion people may live in areas where wood is cut faster than it grows or where fuelwood is extremely scarce” (World Commission on Environment and Development 1987). “Since mid-century, lumber use has tripled, paper use has increased six-fold, and firewood use has soared as Third World populations have multiplied” (Brown et al. 1998). Insofar as hemp reduces the need to harvest trees for building materials or other products, its use as a wood substitute will tend to contribute to preserving biodiversity. Hemp may also enhance forestry management by responding to short-term fiber demand while trees reach their ideal maturation. In developing countries where fuelwood is becoming increasingly scarce and food security is a concern, the introduction of a dual-purpose crop such as hemp to meet food, shelter, and fuel needs may contribute significantly to preserving biodiversity.

One claim is that Hearst believed[dubious – discuss] that his extensive timber holdings were threatened by the invention of the decorticator which he feared would allow hemp to become a cheap substitute for the paper pulp used for newspaper.[121][124] Historical research indicates this fear was unfounded because improvements of the decorticators in the 1930s – machines that separated the fibers from the hemp stem – could not make hemp fiber a cheaper substitute for fibers from other sources. Further, decorticators did not perform satisfactorily in commercial production.[125][121]
Cultivated industrial hemp plants usually consist of a spindly main stalk covered with leaves. Considered a low-maintenance crop, hemp plants typically reach between 6 to 15 feet in height. Depending on the purpose, variety and climatic conditions, the period between planting and harvesting ranges from 70 to 140 days. One acre of hemp can yield an average of 700 pounds of grain, which in turn can be pressed into about 22 gallons of oil and 530 pounds of meal. The same acre will also produce an average of 5,300 pounds of straw, which can be transformed into approximately 1,300 pounds of fiber.
CBC is another lesser-known yet still crucial cannabinoid in marijuana, especially from a therapeutic perspective. While bereft of the psychoactive quality of THC (and to a lesser extent THCV), CBC is gaining popularity as an anxiety reducer. While research on cannabichromene lags behind others, there’s good reason to continue looking into its potential as a medicine.

Another Israeli group postulated that the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of CBD might make it a valuable adjunct in the treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients who have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The authors investigated CBD 300 mg/d in addition to standard GVHD prophylaxis in 48 adult patients who had undergone transplantation predominantly for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (NCT01385124 and NCT01596075).[21] The combination of CBD with standard GVHD prophylaxis was found to be safe. Compared with 101 historical controls treated with standard prophylaxis, patients who received CBD appeared to have a lower incidence of grade II to grade IV GVHD, suggesting that a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is warranted.
Another study examined the effects of a plant extract with controlled cannabinoid content in an oromucosal spray. In a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the THC:CBD nabiximols extract and THC extract alone were compared in the analgesic management of patients with advanced cancer and with moderate-to-severe cancer-related pain. Patients were assigned to one of three treatment groups: THC:CBD extract, THC extract, or placebo. The researchers concluded that the THC:CBD extract was efficacious for pain relief in advanced cancer patients whose pain was not fully relieved by strong opioids.[52] In a randomized, placebo-controlled, graded-dose trial, opioid-treated cancer patients with poorly controlled chronic pain demonstrated significantly better control of pain and sleep disruption with THC:CBD oromucosal spray at lower doses (1–4 and 6–10 sprays/day), compared with placebo. Adverse events were dose related, with only the high-dose group (11–16 sprays/day) comparing unfavorably with the placebo arm. These studies provide promising evidence of an adjuvant analgesic effect of THC:CBD in this opioid-refractory patient population and may provide an opportunity to address this significant clinical challenge.[53] An open-label extension study of 43 patients who had participated in the randomized trial found that some patients continued to obtain relief of their cancer-related pain with long-term use of the THC:CBD oromucosal spray without increasing their dose of the spray or the dose of their other analgesics.[54]
Hemp can be used as a "mop crop" to clear impurities out of wastewater, such as sewage effluent, excessive phosphorus from chicken litter, or other unwanted substances or chemicals. Additionally, hemp is being used to clean contaminants at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site, by way of a process which is known as phytoremediation—the process of clearing radioisotopes and a variety of other toxins from the soil, water, and air.[44]
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